There is a considerable amount of research and references which provide some useful background reading to the Your Schools Your Choice consultation.
The Education Department commissioned two specific pieces of research to help inform debate and discussion around the options included n the consultation.
The first is from the Institute of Education of University College London which considers research into the impact of selective schooling and school composition, secondary school size, and academies and free schools.
The second is from Island Global Research which primarily focuses on the structure of public sector education provision and facts and figures from a number of islands which were selected as benchmarking opportunities. Additionally an assessment was undertaken of education strategies and policies within island jurisdictions to identify any initiatives in place which would be useful in a Guernsey context.
You can download both of these key research papers by clicking on the links at the bottom of this page.
We have also considered and referenced other key research papers which may also be of interest. We have provided a brief overview of the content of the papers to help you decide which ones you might be interested in. You can also access the documents by clicking on the titles.
|Atkinson, A., Gregg, P., & McConnell, B. (2006). The result of 11 plus selection: An investigation into opportunities and outcomes for pupils in selective LEAs (No. 06/150). Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.|
This paper assesses the impact of academic selection at age 11 on children in 'the minority of areas that still operate such a system' (individual LEAs are not named).
|Blundell, Richard; Dearden, Lorraine; Sibieta, Luke (2010) The demand for private schooling in England: The impact of price and quality, IFS working papers, 10:21. |
In this paper the authors use English school level data from 1993 to 2008 to look at the determinants of the demand for private education in England from the ages of 7 until 15 (the last year of compulsory schooling).
|Burgess, S. M., Dickson, M., & Macmillan, L. (2014). Selective schooling systems increase inequality. IZA Discussion paper 8505|
The authors investigated the impact on earnings inequality of a selective education system in which school assignment is based on initial test scores.
|Coe, R., Jones, K., Searle, J., Kokotsaki, D., Kosnin, A.M. and Skinner, P. (2008) Evidence on the effects of selective educational systems. The Sutton Trust.|
This report reviews earlier evidence on the impact of grammar schools on attainment at GCSE level and presents evidence from further analysis of national data sets.
|Connelly, R., Sullivan, A. and Jerrim, J. (2014) Primary and secondary education and poverty review. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London. |
The focus of this review, which draws on and updates earlier reviews, is on the impact of poverty on educational attainment.
|Cribb, J., Jesson, D., Sibieta, L., Skipp, A.,Vignoles, A. (2013) Poor Grammar: Entry into Grammar Schools for disadvantaged pupils in England.|
This report looks specifically at issues regarding selection processes. It is a summary report based on separate studies
|De Waal, A. (ed.) (2015) The Ins and Outs of Selective Secondary Schools: A debate. Civitas. |
This book, published by the think tank Civitas, discusses the debate around selection in secondary schools, with contributions from a range of academics and commentators.
|Education and Training Inspectorate (2014) Summary of the Chief Inspector's Report 2012-2014. Education and Training Inspectorate for Northern Ireland|
Published on 6 November 2014, this Chief Inspector's Report is based on evidence from across the range of the ETI's inspection activity and the findings relate to the pre-school settings, schools, and learning organisations inspected between 1 July 2012-30 June 2014.
|The Effects Of The Selective System Of Secondary Education In Northern Ireland. Main Report. Gallagher, T., & Smith, A. (2000).|
This is the main report of research commissioned by the Department of Education for Northern Ireland into the effects of academic selection at age 11. The authors were asked to examine evidence on four key areas. The first of these concerned the patterns of achievement at GCSE for pupils and how this was mediated by selection. The second issue concerned the GCSE achievement of pupils of similar measured ability in grammar and secondary schools. The remaining two areas were to examine evidence on the impact of selection on pupils' post-school destinations and the impact on their motivation and attitudes
|Rhetoric versus Reality What we know and what we need to know about vouchers and charter schools. Rand Corporation. Gill, B.P., Timpane, P.M., Ross, K.E., Brewer, D. J.(2001)|
This book reviews the theoretical foundations for vouchers and charter schools and the empirical evidence of their effectiveness. The literature analysed includes studies that directly examine voucher and charter schools, in the United States and abroad, and, where relevant, comparisons between existing public and private schools. The book also examines the ways in which multiple dimensions of policy design— such as targeting, funding levels and limitations, admissions policies, academic standards and assessments, and accountability— will determine the nature and extent of any specific program's impact.
|The Effect of Tracking Students by Ability into Different Schools A Natural Experiment. Guyon, N., Maurin, E., & McNally, S. (2011).|
This paper presents a natural experiment where the increase in the size of the elite track was followed by a significant improvement in average educational outcomes. This experiment provides a rare opportunity to isolate the overall effect of allowing entry to the elite track for a group that was previously only at the margin of being admitted.
|ISC Annual census 2015. Independent Schools' Council (2015) |
This report is based on a survey carried out in January 2015. All 1,267 schools in UK membership of the constituent associations of ISC ("ISC schools") completed the survey.
|The Creation, Development and Present State Of Grammar Schools In England. Jesson, David (2013)|
A review of the developments in the grammar school system in England up to June 2013
|TEACHING BY DEGREES The university backgrounds of state and independent school teachers. Kirby, P. (2015)|
In 2003, the Sutton Trust published a study on the university backgrounds of teachers in the state and independent sector by Prof. Alan Smithers and Dr. Louise Tracey. This report revisits this topic, using 2015 data from the National Foundation for Educational Research's Teacher Voice survey, and the Independent Schools Council's Teacher Survey
|Review of Empirical Evidence about school size effects. A Policy Perspective. Report prepared for the Board of Education of the Regina School Division No. 4 of Sakatchewan. Leithwood, K. and Jantzi, D. (2007)|
This review examined 57 post-1990 empirical studies of school size effects on a variety of student and organizational outcomes. The weight of evidence provided by this research clearly favors smaller schools. Students who traditionally struggle at school and students from disadvantaged social and economic backgrounds are the major benefactors of smaller schools.
|Review and synthesis of evidence on the (mechanisms of) impact of school inspections. Nelson, R. and Ehren, M. (2014)|
The purpose of this review was to identify and summarize findings from international empirical research on the impact of inspections.
|Banding and ballots: secondary school admissions in England: admissions in 2012/13 and the impact of growth of academies. Noden, P., West, A., & Hind, A. (2014).|
This report provides key findings from a two part research project funded by the Sutton Trust and the LSE focusing on secondary school admissions in England. The research analyses secondary schools' admissions criteria and practices in England in 2012/13 and illustrative examples of how some local authorities and schools use pupil banding as part of the Year 7 admissions process.
|Secondary school size: a systematic review. Garrett Z, Newman M, Elbourne D, Bradley S, Noden P, Taylor J, West A (2004)|
The question of the optimum size of school has received considerable attention in recent years. In England, the introduction of quasi-market conditions in English secondary education theoretically allows schools to expand or contract in size in accordance with parental preference.
This report aims to produce a systematic map describing the range of research investigating the impact of school size on a range of student, teacher and school outcomes; to produce an in-depth review focusing on comparing outcomes between schools of different sizes and to consider implications from the review in terms of research, policy and practice
|Private education provision and public finance: the Netherlands. Patrinos, H. A. (2013)|
One of the key features of the Dutch education system is freedom of education - freedom to establish schools and organize teaching. Almost 70 percent of schools in the Netherlands are administered by private school boards, and all schools are government funded equally. This allows school choice. Using an instrument to identify school choice, it is shown that the Dutch system promotes academic performance. The Instrumental Variables results show that private school attendance is associated with higher test scores. Private school size effects in math, reading and science achievement are 0.17, 0.28 and 0.18.
|Unseen Children: Access and Achievement 20 years on. Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) (2013)|
This Ofsted survey report reviews the current pattern of disadvantage and educational success across England. It draws on test and examination data, inspection outcomes, and published reports and research. The report aims to learn the lessons of recent policy initiatives, and make proposals that would really make a difference.
|PISA 2012 Results: What Makes Schools Successful? Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV). Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2013)|
This fourth volume of PISA 2012 results examines how student performance is associated with various characteristics of individual schools and of concerned school systems.
It discusses how 15-year old students are selected and grouped into different schools, programmes, and education levels, and how human, financial, educational and time resources are allocated to different schools. The volume also examines how school systems balance autonomy with collaboration, and how the learning environment in school shapes student performance. Trends in these variables between 2003 and 2012 are examined when comparable data are available, and case studies, examining the policy reforms adopted by countries that have improved in PISA, are presented throughout the volume.
|What do parents look for in their child's school? Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD (2015)|
When choosing a school for their child, parents in all participating countries value academic achievement highly; but they are often even more concerned about the safety and environment of the school and the school's reputation.
|OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education NORTHERN IRELAND, UNITED KINGDOM. Shewbridge, C., Hulshof, M., Nusche, D. and Staehr, L.S. (2013)|
This report for Northern Ireland forms part of the OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The Review looks at pupil assessment, teacher appraisal, school leader appraisal, school evaluation and system evaluation, and how these help to improve pupils' learning.
|The distribution of school funding and inputs in England: 1993-2013. Sibieta, L. (2015)|
School funding per pupil increased substantially between 1999-00 and 2012-13 in England. It also be-came more varied across schools with higher levels of funds targeted at more deprived schools. Real-terms increases in funding per pupil were much larger for the most deprived group of primary and secondary schools (83% and 93%, respectively) as compared with the least deprived primary and secondary schools (56% and 59%).
|Access to Grammar Schools for disadvantaged pupils. Skipp, A. and Sadrow, F. (2013)|
This research looks at why children from disadvantaged backgrounds go or don't go to grammar schools. This report describes the factors that help and hinder children from disadvantaged backgrounds getting into grammar schools and the information is based on in depth interviews with Head teachers from primary and selective grammar schools.
|Worlds Apart: social variation among schools. Smithers, A. and Robinson, P. (2010)|
A report by Alan Smithers and Pamela Robinson from the Centre for Education and Employment Research at the University of Buckingham, investigating social exclusivity in secondary schools
|School effects and ethnic, gender and socio-economic gaps in educational achievement at age 11. Strand S., (2014)|
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream primary schools in an ethnically diverse inner London borough.
|Entry into Grammar Schools in England. Vignoles, A.; Cribb, J. and Sibieta, L. (2013)|
This report examines the extent to which grammar schools and grammar systems admit students who are eligible for free school meals and from deprived socio-economic backgrounds more generally.
|Markets in education: An analytical review of empirical research on market mechanisms in education. Waslander, S., Pater, C. and Van Der Weide, M.(2010)|
In the last three decennia, many governments have introduced market mechanisms in education. They have done so by enhancing parental choice and encouraging school competition, through policies like abolishing catchment areas, creating voucher programmes and setting up charter schools. Most prior reviews of research literature in this area have concluded that the effects of market mechanisms in education are small, if they are found at all. This review tries to answer the question why that is the case, by analysing the causal pathways that link market mechanisms to educational outcomes and by reviewing the empirical evidence for each step along those causal pathways
|Achievement of 15-Year-Olds in England: PISA 2012 National Report. Wheater, R., Ager, R., Burge, B. and Sizmur, J. (2014)|
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assesses the extent to which 15-year-old students have acquired key knowledge and skills that are essential for full participation in modern societies. The assessment, which focuses on reading, mathematics, science and problem-solving, does not just ascertain whether students can reproduce what they have learned; it also examines how well they can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply that knowledge in unfamiliar settings, both in and outside of school. This approach reflects the fact that modern societies reward individuals not for what they know, but for what they can do with what they know.
|Academies: It's time to learn the lessons. Worth, J. (2015).|
Academies are now an established part of the English school landscape. Future policy should focus on learning the lessons from the growth of academy schools.
In this NFER Thinks, they present the case that any future expansion in the number of academies should be motivated by a clear vision of the long term outcomes for learners that academisation is aiming to achieve. They also argue that evaluation should be embedded in the process.